Lower, Mark A (1860) Patronymica Britannica: a dictionary of the family names of the United Kingdom. London: J.R. Smith. Public Domain.
We don't have any stats on how common this name is. This is probably because it's very rare in the UK.
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The Calvary surname in historical dictionaries
Patronymica Britannica (1860)
CALVARY. \Iany monastic establishments had within their ambit an elevated mound representing the supposed 'mount' Calvary, the scene of our Lord's Passion. A spiral path leading to its summit was called " the way of the cross," (ria crucis,') and hither on Good Fridays a large crucifix was borne in procession by the monks, and fixed upon the summit. A fine example of a calcary exists at Lewes Priory. The surname was probably derived from residence near such a spot.